Kesko is a Finnish listed trading sector company. Kesko has over 1,500 stores engaged in chain operations in the Nordic and Baltic countries, Russia and Belarus.
Kesko Group's reportable segments consist of its business divisions, namely the grocery trade, the home improvement and speciality goods trade, and the car trade.
The Group's parent company, Kesko Corporation, is a Finnish public limited company constituted in accordance with the laws of Finland. The Company's business ID is 0109862-8, it is domiciled in Helsinki, and its registered address is Satamakatu 3, FI-00016 KESKO. Copies of Kesko Corporation's financial statements and the consolidated financial statements are available from Kesko Corporation, Satamakatu 3, Helsinki, visiting address Kruunuvuorenkatu 4, Helsinki, and from the internet at www.kesko.fi.
Kesko's Board of Directors has approved these financial statements for disclosure on 2 February 2016.
Kesko's consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) approved for adoption by the European Union, and they comply with the IAS and IFRS standards and respective SIC and IFRIC Interpretations effective on 31 December 2015. The International Reporting Standards refer to standards and their interpretations approved for adoption within the EU in accordance with the procedure enacted in EU regulation (EC) 1606/2002, included in the Finnish Accounting Act and regulations based on it. Accounting standards not yet effective have not been adopted voluntarily for the consolidated financial statements. The notes to the consolidated financial statements also include compliance with Finnish accounting and corporate legislation.
New standards were not adopted during the financial year 2015.
All amounts in the consolidated financial statements are in millions of euros and based on original cost, with the exception of items specified below, which have been measured at fair value in compliance with the standards.
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with international accounting standards requires the use of certain estimates and assumptions about the future that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, contingent liabilities, and income and expense. The actual results may differ from these estimates and assumptions. The most significant circumstances for which estimates have been required are described below.
The estimates and judgements made are continuously evaluated, and they are based on historical experience and other factors, including expectations of future events that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances.
Assets acquired and liabilities assumed in business combinations are measured at their fair values at the date of acquisition. The fair values on which the allocation of costs and liabilities is based are determined by reference to market values to the extent they are available. If market values are not available, the measurement is based on the estimated earnings-generating capacity of the asset and its future use in Kesko's operating activities. The measurement of intangible assets, in particular, is based on the present values of future cash flows and requires management estimates regarding future cash flows and the use of assets.
The recoverable amounts of cash generating units have been determined using calculations based on value in use. In the calculations, forecast cash flows are based on financial plans approved by management, covering a period of three years. (Note 12)
The Group operates both defined contribution pension plans and defined benefit pension plans. Items relating to employee benefits are calculated using several factors that require the application of judgement. Pension calculations under defined benefit plans in compliance with IAS 19 are based on, among others, the following factors that rely on management estimates (Note 17):
Changes in these assumptions can significantly impact the amounts of pension obligation and future pension expenses. In addition, a significant part of the pension plan assets is invested in real estate and shares, whose value adjustments impact the recognised amount of pension assets.
The Group regularly reviews inventories for obsolescence and turnover, and for possible reduction of net realisable value below cost, and records an impairment as necessary. Such reviews require assessments of future demand for products. Possible changes in these estimates may cause changes in inventory measurement in future periods.
The Group companies apply a uniform practice to measuring receivables past due. Possible changes in customers' solvency may cause changes in the measurement of trade receivables in future periods.
The existence of criteria for recognising provisions and the amounts of provisions are determined based on estimates of the existence and amount of the obligation. Estimates may differ from the actual future amount of the obligation and with respect to the existence of the obligation.
The Group's management uses its judgement in the adoption and application of accounting policies in the financial statements. Management has exercised its judgement in the application of accounting policies when, for example, measuring receivables, determining provisions for restructuring and classifying leases.
The consolidated financial statements combine the financial statements of Kesko Corporation and subsidiaries controlled by the Group. Control exists when the Group has more than half of the voting rights of a subsidiary or otherwise exerts control. An investor controls an investee when it is exposed, or has rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the investee and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the investee. Acquired subsidiaries are consolidated from the date on which the Group gains control until the date on which control ceases. The existence of potential voting rights has been considered when assessing the existence of control in the case that the instruments entitling to potential control are currently exercisable. Subsidiaries are listed in note 37.
Mutual shareholding is eliminated by using the acquisition cost method. The cost of assets acquired is determined on the basis of the fair value of the acquired assets as at the acquisition date, the issued equity instruments and liabilities resulting from or assumed on the date of the exchange transaction. The identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities acquired are measured at the fair value at the acquisition date, gross of non-controlling interest.
Intragroup transactions, receivables and payables, unrealised profits and internal distributions of profits are eliminated when preparing the consolidated financial statements. Unrealised losses are not eliminated if the loss is due to the impairment of an asset. Non-controlling interest in the profit for the period is disclosed in the income statement and the amount of equity attributable to the non-controlling interests is disclosed separately in equity.
The Group accounts for its real estate company acquisitions as acquisitions of assets.
Associates are companies over which the Group has significant influence but not control. In Kesko Group, significant influence accompanies a shareholding of between 20% and 50% of the voting rights. Investments in associates are accounted for using the equity method and are initially recognised at cost.
The Group’s share of post-acquisition profits or losses is recognised in the income statement. The cumulative post-acquisition movements are adjusted against the carrying amount of the investment. If the Group’s share of losses in an associate equals or exceeds its interest in the associate, the Group does not recognise further losses.
Unrealised gains on transactions between the Group and the associates are eliminated to the extent of the Group’s interest in the associates. Unrealised losses are also eliminated, unless the transaction provides evidence of an impairment of the asset transferred. Dividends received from associates are deducted from the Group's result and the cost of the shares. An investment in an associate includes the goodwill generated by the acquisition. Goodwill is not amortised.
Joint arrangements are arrangements in which the sharing of joint control has been contractually agreed between two or more parties. Joint control exists only when decisions about the relevant activities require the unanimous consent of the parties sharing control. A joint venture is a joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the net assets of the arrangement. Investments in joint ventures are accounted for using the equity method, and on initial recognition, they are recognised at cost.
The Group’s share of post-acquisition profits or losses is recognised in the income statement. The cumulative post-acquisition movements are adjusted against the carrying amount of the investment. If the Group’s share of losses in a joint venture equals or exceeds its interest in the joint venture, the Group does not recognise further losses.
Unrealised gains on transactions between the Group and the joint ventures are eliminated to the extent of the Group’s interests in the joint ventures. Unrealised losses are also eliminated, unless the transaction provides evidence of an impairment of the asset transferred. Dividends received from joint ventures are deducted from the Group's result and the cost of the shares. An investment in a joint venture includes the goodwill generated by the acquisition. Goodwill is not amortised.
Mutual real estate companies are consolidated as assets under joint control on a line-by-line basis in proportion to ownership. The Group's share of mutual real estate companies' loans and reserves is accounted for separately in the consolidation.
Subsidiaries, equity accounted investments and proportionately consolidated mutual real estate companies are listed in note 37.
The consolidated financial statements are presented in euros, which is both the functional currency of the environment in which the Group’s parent operates and the presentation currency. On initial recognition, the amounts with respect to the result and financial position of the Group companies located outside the euro zone are recorded in the functional currency of each of their operating environments. The functional currency of the real estate companies operating in Russia, in St. Petersburg and Moscow, has been determined to be the euro, which is why no significant exchange differences are realised from their balance sheets for the Group.
Foreign currency transactions are recorded in euros by applying the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Receivables and liabilities denominated in foreign currency are translated into euros using the closing rate. Exchange rate gains and losses on foreign currency transactions and receivables and liabilities denominated in foreign currency are recognised in the income statement, with the exception of those loan exchange rate movements designated as hedges of foreign net investments and regarded as effective. These exchange differences are recognised in equity, in compliance with the rules of hedge accounting, and their changes are presented in other comprehensive income. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from operating activities are included in the respective items above operating profit. Foreign exchange gains and losses from foreign exchange forward contracts and options used for hedging financial transactions, and from foreign currency borrowings are included in financial income and costs.
The income statements of the Group companies operating outside the euro zone, and whose functional currency is not that of a hyperinflationary economy, have been translated into euros at the average rate of the financial year, and the balance sheets at the closing rate. The foreign exchange difference resulting from the use of different rates, and the translation differences arising from the elimination of the acquisition cost of subsidiaries outside the euro zone, and the hedging result of net investments in them are recognised in equity, and the changes are presented in other comprehensive income. In connection with the disposal of a subsidiary, translation differences are recognised in the income statement as part of the gains or losses on the disposal.
Goodwill arising on the acquisition of foreign operations and the fair value adjustments of assets and liabilities made upon their acquisition are treated as assets and liabilities of these foreign operations and translated into euros at the closing rate.
Until the end of 2014, assets and liabilities of operations in countries that have been identified as hyperinflationary economies are restated based on the change in purchasing power prior to foreign currency translation. In 2014, the income statements and balance sheets of these operations were translated into euros at the rate of the balance sheet date. In 2015, the Group did not have operations in countries identified as hyperinflationary economies.
The Group classifies its financial assets into the following categories:
The classification at initial recognition depends on the purpose for which the financial asset was acquired.
Regular way purchases or sales of financial assets are recognised on trade date. Financial assets are classified as non-current, if they have a maturity of more than 12 months after the balance sheet date. If financial assets are expected to be settled within 12 months, they are classified as current. Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss are classified as current.
Financial assets are derecognised when the rights to receive cash flows from the financial asset have expired or have been transferred from the Group, and when the risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred from the Group.
At each date of the financial statements, the Group assesses whether there is evidence that a financial asset is impaired. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated. The recoverable amount is the fair value based on the market price or the present value of cash flows. The fair value of financial assets is determined on the basis of a maturity based interest rate quotation. An impairment loss is recognised if the carrying amount of financial assets exceeds the recoverable amount. Impairment losses are recognised within the financial items of the income statement.
Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss include instruments initially classified as financial assets at fair value through profit or loss (the fair value option). These instruments are managed based on fair value and they include investments in money market funds, as well as investments in other interest-bearing instruments with maturities of over three months, as defined by the Group's treasury policy. The interest income from these financial assets and changes in their fair values, as well as any commissions returned by the funds are presented on a net basis in the interest income of the relevant class in the income statement.
In addition, financial assets at fair value through profit or loss include all derivatives that do not qualify for hedge accounting in compliance with IAS 39. Derivatives are carried at fair value using prices quoted in active markets. The results of derivatives used for hedging purchases and sales are recognised in other operating income or expenses. The result of derivatives used for hedging financial items is recognised in financial items, unless the derivative has been designated as a hedging instrument.
Available-for-sale financial assets are non-derivative assets designated as available for sale at the date of initial recognition. Available-for-sale financial assets are measured at fair value at the balance sheet date and the changes in their fair values are recognised in equity and presented in other comprehensive income. The fair value of publicly quoted financial assets is determined based on their market value. Financial assets not quoted publicly are measured at cost if their fair values cannot be measured reliably.
Dividends from equity investments included in available-for-sale financial assets are recognised in financial items in the income statement. The interest income from available-for-sale financial assets is recognised in the financial items of the relevant class. When an available-for-sale financial asset is sold, the accumulated changes in fair value recognised in equity are included in other financial income/expenses in the income statement.
Loans and receivables are non-derivative assets with fixed or measurable payments, and they are not quoted in active markets. Loans and receivables also include trade receivables and other receivables. They are recognised at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method.
Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand and deposits with banks. The cash and cash equivalents in the consolidated balance sheet also include amounts relating to the retail operations of the division parent companies, used as cash floats in stores, or amounts being transferred to the respective companies.
Financial liabilities have initially been recognised at fair value, net of transaction costs. In the financial statements, financial liabilities are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method. Arrangement fees paid on the establishment of loan facilities and financial liabilities are amortised over the period of the facility to which it relates. Financial liabilities having maturities of more than 12 months after the balance sheet date are classified as non-current liabilities. Those maturing within 12 months after the balance sheet date are classified as current liabilities.
When derivative contracts are entered into, they are recognised at fair value and in the financial statements, they are re-measured at their fair value. The recognition of changes in the fair value of derivatives depends on whether the derivative instrument qualifies for hedge accounting and, if so, on the hedged item. When entered into, derivative contracts are treated either as fair value hedges of receivables or liabilities, or in the case of interest rate risk and electricity price risk, as cash flow hedges, as hedges of net investments in a foreign entity, or as derivative contracts that do not meet the hedge accounting criteria. If the hedge accounting criteria are not met, the results of instruments hedging a commercial foreign exchange risk are recognised in profit or loss within other operating income or expenses. Concerning derivatives hedging financial transactions, the amount to be recognised in the income statement is included in financial items.
When a hedging arrangement is entered into, the relationship between the hedged item and the hedging instrument, as well as the objectives of the Group's risk management are documented. The effectiveness of the hedge relationship is tested regularly and the effective portion is recognised, according to the nature of the hedged item, against the change in the fair value of the hedged item, in translation differences in equity, or in the revaluation reserve. The ineffective portion is recognised, according to its nature, either in financial items or other operating income and expenses. The effective portion of changes in the fair value of instruments used for hedging cash flows, such as long-term credit facilities, is recognised in the revaluation reserve. A change in the fair value of foreign currency derivatives relating to the credit facility is recognised in borrowings, and a change in the fair value of interest rate derivatives in other non-interest-bearing receivables or liabilities.
Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, or when the contract is terminated or exercised. Any cumulative gain or loss existing in equity at that time remains in equity until the forecast transaction has occurred.
The fair value of forward rate agreements is determined by reference to the market prices at the balance sheet date. The fair value of interest rate swaps is calculated on the basis of the present value of future cash flows, using the market prices at the balance sheet date. The fair value of foreign exchange forward contracts is determined by measuring the forward contracts at the forward rate at the balance sheet date. Currency options are measured using the counterparty's price quotation, but the Group also verifies the price by applying the Black-Scholes method. Electricity derivatives are measured at fair value using the market quotations at the balance sheet date.
During the financial year, the Group has not hedged net investments in foreign operations. If a hedge is initiated, the Group applies hedge accounting in accordance with IAS 39 to hedge foreign currency net investments in foreign operations. Foreign exchange forward contracts or foreign currency borrowings are used as hedging instruments. Spot price changes in foreign exchange forward contracts are recognised in translation differences under equity, and disclosed in other comprehensive income. The premiums of forward contracts are recognised as income under financial items. The exchange difference of foreign currency borrowings is recognised in translation differences under equity. When a foreign operation is partially or wholly disposed of or wound up, cumulative gains or losses from the hedging instruments are recognised in profit or loss.
The Group has prepared method descriptions for identifying embedded derivatives and applies fair value measurement to them. In Kesko Group, embedded derivatives can be included in binding commercial contracts denominated in a currency which is not the functional currency of either party and not commonly used in the economic environment in which the transaction takes place. The fair value of embedded derivatives is determined using the market prices at the measurement date and the change in fair value is recognised in the income statement.
Property, plant and equipment mainly comprise land, buildings, machinery and equipment. Property, plant and equipment are carried at historic cost net of planned depreciation and possible impairment. The property, plant and equipment of acquired subsidiaries are measured at fair value at the date of acquisition.
Subsequent costs relating to items of property, plant and equipment are included in the asset’s carrying amount or recognised as a separate asset only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Group and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. The carrying amount of any component accounted for as a separate asset is derecognised when replaced. The machinery and equipment of buildings are treated as separate assets and any significant expenditure related to their replacement is capitalised. All other repair, service and maintenance expenditures of items of property, plant and equipment are charged to the income statement during the financial period in which they are incurred.
Depreciation on property, plant and equipment is calculated using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives. Land is not depreciated.
The most common estimated useful lives are:
Buildings 10−33 years
Components of buildings 8−10 years
Machinery and equipment 3−8 years
Cars and transport equipment 5 years
The residual values and useful lives of property, plant and equipment are reviewed at least at the end of each financial year. If the estimates of useful life and the expected pattern of economic benefits are different from previous estimates, the change in the estimate is accounted for.
Depreciation of property, plant and equipment ceases when an item is classified as a non-current asset held for sale.
Gains and losses on disposals of property, plant and equipment are recognised in the income statement and stated as other operating income and expenses.
Goodwill is not amortised but is instead tested for impairment annually and whenever there is an indication of impairment. For testing purposes, goodwill is allocated to the cash generating units. Goodwill is measured at initial cost and that acquired prior to 1 January 2004, at deemed cost net of impairment. Any negative goodwill is immediately recognised as income. For goodwill, a recognised impairment loss is not reversed.
Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are not amortised. They are tested for impairment annually and whenever there is an indication of impairment. These intangible assets include trademarks capitalised upon acquisition, recorded at their fair values at the acquisition date.
The cost of intangible assets with definite useful lives are recorded in the balance sheet and recognised as expenses during their useful lives. Such intangible assets include software licences, customer relationships and licences measured at the fair value at the date of acquisition, and leasehold interests that are amortised during their probable lease terms.
The estimated useful lives are:
Software and licences 3−5 years
Customer and supplier relationships 10 years
Licences 20 years
The costs of research and development activities have been expensed as incurred, because the Group does not have development costs eligible for capitalisation. Development costs previously recognised as an expense are not recognised as an asset in subsequent periods.
The salary costs of the Group employees working on projects for developing new software and other directly attributable costs are capitalised as part of the software cost. On the balance sheet, software is included in intangible assets and its cost is amortised over the useful life of the software. Costs associated with maintaining the software are recognised as an expense as incurred.
At each balance sheet date, the Group assesses whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated. The recoverable amount of goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite useful lives is assessed every year whether or not there is an indication of impairment. In addition, an impairment test is performed whenever there is an indication of impairment.
The recoverable amount is the higher of an asset's fair value less costs to sell and value in use. Often, it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount for an individual asset. Then, as in the case of goodwill, the recoverable amount is determined for the cash generating unit to which the goodwill or asset belongs.
An impairment loss is recognised if the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The impairment loss is recognised in the income statement. An impairment loss recognised for an asset in prior years is reversed, if the revaluation shows an increase in the recoverable amount. However, the reversal of an impairment loss of an asset should not exceed the carrying amount of the asset without impairment loss recognition. For goodwill, a recognised impairment loss is not reversed under any circumstances.
The Group acts as both lessor and lessee of real estate and machines. Leases in which risks and rewards incidental to ownership are not transferred to the lessee are classified as operating leases. Lease payments related to them are recognised in the income statement on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Leases that substantially transfer all risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the Group are classified as finance leases. An asset leased under a finance lease is recognised in the balance sheet at the lower of the fair value at the inception date and the present value of minimum lease payments. The lease obligations of finance leases are recorded in interest-bearing liabilities in the balance sheet. Lease payments are recognised as finance costs and a decrease in the liability. Assets acquired under finance leases are depreciated over the shorter of the useful life of the asset and the lease term.
Similarly, leases in which assets are leased out by the Group and substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership are transferred to the lessee, are classified as finance leases. Assets leased under such contracts are recognised as a receivable in the balance sheet and the receivable is stated at present value. The financial income from finance leases is determined so as to achieve a constant periodic rate of return on the remaining net investment for the lease term.
In sale and leaseback transactions, the selling price and the future lease payments are usually interdependent. If a sale and leaseback transaction results in a finance lease, any proceeds exceeding the carrying amount are not immediately recognised as income. Instead, the amount is recognised as a liability in the balance sheet and amortised over the period of the lease. If a sale and leaseback transaction results in an operating lease and the transaction was executed at fair value, any profit or loss is recognised immediately.
If the selling price is less than fair value, any profit or loss is recognised immediately, unless the loss is compensated by future lease payments at below market price, in which case the loss is deferred and amortised over the period for which the asset is expected to be used. If the selling price exceeds fair value, the excess over fair value is deferred and amortised over the period for which the asset is expected to be used. If fair value at the time of a sale and leaseback transaction is less than the carrying amount of the asset, a loss equal to the amount of the difference between the carrying amount and fair value is recognised immediately.
Inventories are measured at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less direct costs necessary to make the sale. The cost is determined using weighted average costs. The cost of certain categories of inventory is determined using the FIFO method. The cost of finished goods comprises all costs of purchase including freight. The cost of self-constructed goods comprises all costs of conversion including direct costs and allocations of variable and fixed production overheads. The cost excludes borrowing costs.
Trade receivables are recognised in the amounts of initial sale. Impairment is recognised when there is objective evidence of impairment loss. The Group has established uniform principles for the determination of impairment of trade receivables based on the time receivables have been overdue. In addition, impairment is recognised, if there is other evidence of a debtor's insolvency, bankruptcy or liquidation. Impairment is recognised as an expense in other operating expenses. If an amount previously written off is subsequently settled, it is recognised as a reduction of other operating expenses.
Non-current assets (or a disposal group) are classified as held for sale, if their carrying amount will be recovered principally through the disposal of the assets and the sale is highly probable. If their carrying amount will be recovered principally through their disposal rather than through their continuing use, they are measured at the lower rate of the carrying amount and fair value net of costs to sell.
The comparative information in the income statement is adjusted for operations classified as discontinued during the latest financial period being reported. Consequently, the result of discontinued operations is presented as a separate line item also for the comparatives. In the financial years 2015 and 2014, the Group had no discontinued operations.
The Group classifies the instruments it has issued either in equity or in financial liabilities based on their nature. An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities. Expenses related to the issuance or acquisition of equity instruments are presented as an allowance for equity. If Kesko Corporation acquires equity instruments of its own, their cost is deducted from equity.
A provision is recognised when the Group has a present legal or constructive obligation as the result of a past event, and it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation, and that a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provision amounts are reviewed on each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimate. Changes in provisions are recorded in the income statement in the same item in which the provision was originally recognised. The most significant part of the Group's provisions relates to warranties given to products sold by the Group and to onerous lease contracts.
A warranty provision is recognised when a product covered by warranty provisions is sold. The provision amount is based on historical experience about the level of warranty expenses. Leases become onerous and a provision is recognised for them, if the leased premises remain vacant, or if they are subleased at a rate lower than the original. A provision is recognised for the estimated loss from vacant leased premises over the remaining lease term and for losses from subleased premises.
The Group operates both defined contribution pension plans and defined benefit pension plans. The contributions payable under defined contribution plans are recognised as expenses in the income statement for the period to which the payments relate. In defined contribution plans, the Group does not have a legal or constructive obligation to pay further contributions, in case the payment recipient is unable to pay the retirement benefits.
In defined benefit plans, the Group may incur obligations or assets after the payment of the contribution. The pension obligation represents the present value of future cash flows from the benefits payable. The present value of pension obligations has been calculated using the projected unit credit method. Pension costs are expensed during employees' service lives based on actuarial calculations. The discount rate assumed in calculating the present value of the pension obligation is the market yield of high-quality corporate bonds. Their maturity substantially corresponds to the maturity of the pension liability. The assets corresponding to the pension obligation of the retirement benefit plan are carried at fair values at the balance sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised in comprehensive income in the income statement.
The costs relating to share-based payments are recorded in the income statement and the corresponding liability for share-based payments settled in cash is recognised in the balance sheet. The liability in the balance sheet is measured at fair value at each balance sheet date. For equity-settled share-based payment transactions, an increase corresponding to the expensed amount is recorded in equity.
The Company's Board of Directors has granted a share-based compensation plan to management under which an award consisting of B series shares and an amount in cash is paid upon fulfilling the plan’s terms. The fair value of the award paid in shares is the value of the share at the grant date and it is recognised as an expense on a straight-line basis over the vesting and commitment period of the plan. The expensed amount is based on the Group's estimate of the amount of award payable in shares at the end of the vesting period. The effects of non-market conditions are not included in the fair value of the awards. Instead, they are accounted for in the assumptions of the number of shares expected to vest at the end of the vesting period. A cash component is paid to cover the taxes and tax-like charges incurred under the award. The cash component is recognised as an expense during the vesting period. Changes in estimates are recorded in the income statement.
Net sales comprise the sale of goods, services and energy. The contribution of the sales of services and energy to total net sales is not significant.
For net sales, sales revenue is adjusted for indirect taxes, sales adjustment items and the exchange differences of foreign-currency-denominated sales. Sales adjustment items include loyalty award credits relating to the K-Plussa customer loyalty scheme, which are recognised at fair values as part of sales transactions. Loyalty award credits affect the net sales of those segments which grant K-Plussa customer loyalty credits and are engaged in retailing.
The Group sells products to retailers and other retail dealers in addition to engaging in own retailing. Income from sales of goods is recognised when significant risks, benefits and control relating to the ownership of the goods have been transferred to the buyer, and it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the Group. As a rule, income from sales of goods can be recognised at the time of transfer. Sales to retailers and other retail dealers are based on invoicing. Retail sales are mainly in cash and by credit card.
Income from services is recognised after the service has been performed and when a flow of economic benefits associated with the service is probable.
Interest income is recognised on a time apportionment basis using the effective interest method. Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive payment is established.
Other operating income includes income other than that associated with the sale of goods or services, such as lease income, store site and chain fees and various other service fees and commissions. Other operating income and expenses also include gains and losses on the disposal of property, plant and equipment as well as realised and unrealised gains and losses on derivatives used for hedging foreign currency risks associated with commercial transactions.
The Group has not capitalised interest costs incurred as part of the acquisition of assets, because the Group does not have qualifying assets.
Directly attributable transaction costs clearly associated with a certain borrowing are included in the original amortised cost of the borrowing and amortised as an interest expense using the effective interest method.
The taxes recognised in the consolidated income statement include the Group companies' taxes on current net profits on an accrual basis, prior period tax adjustments and changes in deferred taxes. The Group companies' taxes have been calculated from the taxable income of each company determined by local jurisdiction.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognised on all temporary differences arising between the tax bases and carrying amounts of assets and liabilities. Deferred tax liability has not been calculated on goodwill insofar as goodwill is not tax deductible. Deferred tax on subsidiaries' undistributed earnings is not recognised unless a distribution of earnings is probable, causing tax implications.
Deferred tax has been determined using the tax rates enacted at the balance sheet date, and as the rates changed, at the known new rate. A deferred income tax asset is recognised to the extent that it is probable that it can be utilised against future taxable income. The Group's deferred income tax assets and liabilities are offset when they relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority.
The most significant temporary differences arise from defined benefit pension plans, property, plant and equipment (depreciation difference), provisions and measurements at fair value of asset items in connection with acquisitions.
The dividend proposed by the Board of Directors to the General Meeting has not been deducted from equity. Instead, dividends are recognised on the basis of the resolution by the General Meeting.
In addition to the standards and interpretations presented in the 2015 financial statements, the Group will adopt the following standards, interpretations and amendments to standards and interpretations issued for application in its 2016 or subsequent financial statements.
The standard addresses the classification, measurement and recognition of financial assets and financial liabilities. IFRS 9 allows financial assets to be classified into three measurement categories: amortised cost, fair value through other comprehensive income and fair value through profit and loss. The measurement category is determined on initial recognition. Classification depends on the business model for managing financial assets and the contractual cash flow characteristics of the instrument. For financial liabilities, the standard retains most of the IAS 39 requirements. The main change is that, in cases where the fair value option is taken for financial liabilities, the part of a fair value change due to an entity’s own credit risk is recorded in other comprehensive income, unless this creates an accounting mismatch. The Group's management estimates that the new standard will have a minor impact on the accounting treatment of financial assets.
The effective date of the standard is 1 January 2018. The standard has not yet been endorsed for adoption by the EU.
The standard replaces IAS 11, ‘Construction contracts’ and IAS 18, ’Revenue and related interpretations’. Revenue is recognised when control of goods or services transfers to a customer. A customer obtains control when it has the ability to direct the use of and obtain the benefits from the goods or services. The core principle is that an entity recognises revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. Management estimates that the new standard will not have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
The effective date of the standard is 1 January 2018. The standard has not yet been endorsed for adoption by the EU.
On 13 January 2016, IASB issued a new IFRS standard, IFRS 16 Leases. The standard addresses the definition, recording, measurement and disclosure related to leases. According to the standard, all leases of over 12 months are recognised as assets and liabilities (right-of-use assets). Management estimates that the new standard will have an impact on the Company’s income statement, balance sheet and performance indicators.
The effective date of the standard is 1 January 2019. The standard has not yet been endorsed for adoption by the EU.
Management estimates that the other issued new IFRS standards, IFRIC interpretations and amendments to the existing standards and interpretations will not have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements or their presentation.